In order to produce ecologically clean products, it is necessary to choose the right technology of their growing. The result which the producer gets depends on the choice of the technology of the production growth. This can be achieved through use of organic fertilizers, which is a natural and safe way to improve the composition of soil.
But every agricultural producer has to make a choice whether to use mineral or organic fertilizers. In order to make the right choice, it is necessary to understand the specifics of their use, advantages and disadvantages of mineral and organic fertilizers.
When comparing the methods of use of organic and mineral fertilizers, some similarities can be found. Study of the chemical composition of the soil structure, in which the fertilizer will be introduced, shall be the obligatory condition before the treatment in case of both mineral and organic fertilizers. This analysis can be carried out in the laboratory: there, quantity of macro- and microelements and the structure of the soil can be defined. If it is impossible to use laboratory services, then simple and cheap kit of home tests can be purchased in the garden centers. But it is necessary to keep in mind that accuracy of such tests is not high, which can lead to the wrong estimation of the soil state.
In order to make sure that organic fertilizers are really the most effective way of healthy production growing, the comparative analysis of introducing mineral and organic fertilizers can be carried out.
Currently, there are 3 ways of mineral fertilization: preplant, main and additional fertilization. The most famous one is the pre sowing. Using this method, mineral fertilizers are introduced in the soil directly before sowing, so that plants get all the necessary nutritive microelements in a sufficient quantity. The disadvantage of this way is the need for a large quantity of time: as much as as for the plowing or harvesting of crops. The main introducing of the mineral fertilizers is used simultaneously with the sowing of seeds of agricultural crops. Additional fertilization provides for introducing fertilizers during different stages of the plant’s growth, due to which formation of the vegetative mass of agricultural crops is accelerated.
The other method of the production growing is the using of organic fertilizers. The specific character of the organics is that organic fertilizers evolve nutritional chemicals step by step, without having the risk to “burn” or “overfeed” the plant. If the organic fertilizers are used in a rational and practical way, then they will be the inexhaustible resource for agriculture.
In the framework of the initiative “Elaboration of the technology of transition to organic fertilizers of domestic production of agricultural enterprises of Cherikovsky district”, implemented by the Small Grants Programme of Global Ecological Fund in Belarus, ICA “Assistance of business development” studies organic cropping and introduces the significant role of organic fertilizers in the agriculture.
The aim of the initiative is reducing the impact of chemicals on the environment and human health through elaboration of the technology of transition to organic fertilizers of domestic production of agricultural enterprises of Cherikovsky district. The initiative is implemented on the base of the enterprise CAUE “Ezersky” of Cherikovsky district together with the partners of the project Cherikovsky District Executive Committee and Ezersky village council.
The main demand to soil cultivation in organic farming is providing environmental-oriented use of land, weakening damages of land erosion and overconsolidation of the soil, weed control with farming methods.
There 2 ways of tillage in organic farming: cultivation and minimal tillage. Cultivation is used as the measure of weed control. In this method, it is important to control exactly the depth, using the minimal possible one. The second way of tillage in organic farming is minimal tillage. The essence of the method is in low-tillage farming, providing reducing energetic and labor costs by applying reducing of amount and depth of tillage and combination several technological operations in one working process. Advantages of minimal tillage are elasticity of the soil, conservation of humus and soil fauna, protection from erosion and maintenance of the water balance.
The important part in the conduct of organic farming is using special equipment and techniques in working with organic fertilizers.
Use of the subsoiler is an alternative in transition to organic agriculture. This technique helps to rupture the plough sole and restore water-and-air connection with lower layers. Aeration of deep layers results in enhanced humus mineralization. Advantage of subsoiler is that the layer is not turned over.
The vertical tillage in organic farming is provided by turbocolter and torbochopper. Turbocolter is a specific kind of a wavy disk supposed for tillage without interfusion of the layers. In comparison with spring-loaded or wavy disks, moreover with spherical disks, turbocolters can prevent appearance of the layers with high solidity. Turbochopper is is a roll with heliciform blade, supposed for pounding plant residues.
The appliance of organic fertilizers is promoting the improvement of ecological status of the areas, saving the biodiversity of local species of plants and animals.
Thus, we can make a conclusion that the use of organic fertilizers of agricultural enterprises is helpful both for an agricultural producer and for a consumer of organic production. It means that now, it is efficient to use organic fertilizers for the growing of ecologically clean products.